Saturday, December 31, 2011

New Year's Eve Cocktail

The Champagne Cocktail is the classic mixed beverage for ringing in the New Year.  Here are a couple of recipes worth trying.

Champagne Cocktail (classic version)
  • 1 sugar cube
  • 1 dash of Angostura bitters
  • twist of lemon of lemon peel
  • 3 oz champagne
  • Place the sugar cube in the bottom of the glass and drop one dash of Angostura bitters on the cube.   Twist the lemon peel over the cube and drop into bottom of glass.  Pour champagne over the cube.
Champagne Cocktail (stout)
  • 1 oz brandy
  • 4 oz champagne
  • 1 orange peel
  • Combine the brandy and champagne in a glass.  Twist orange peel over glass and discard peel.
Champagne Julep
  • 3 mint leaves
  • 1 sugar cube
  • twist of lemon peel
  • 3 oz of champagne
  • Muddle mint in bottom of glass.  Add cube.  Twist lemon peel over cube.  Add champagne.
A votre santé! Let go of your old habits so to make room for new ones.

How to Celebrate New Year's Eve in...

New Year's Postcard, Nengajo
Japan:  Holiday is known as Omisoka.  Send a postcard so it arrives on January 1st.
Mexico: Año Nuevo.  Eat twelve grapes at midnight.
GreeceProtohronia (New Year's Day, also St. Basil's Day).  Invite the most lucky person you know to be the first to enter your house: "Pothariko."
Russia: Decorate the New Year's tree, the Novogodnyaya Yolka, with candy.  Await the coming of Ded Moroz, Father Frost, and Snegurochka, the snow girl, on New Year's Day.

Ded Moroz and Snegurochka

Friday, December 30, 2011

Ice Church: ideal home for the "Frozen Chosen"

God's Igloo
A chilling monument to religion has been constructed in Mitterfirmiansreut.  The tradition of the Ice Church goes back to 1911 when local villagers constructed a church of snow as a worship site because they did not have a permanent church in the area.  The most recent manifestation of winter worship was intended to be completed in time for Christmas, but global warming dampened construction efforts.  "God's Igloo," as it is known locally, is a Catholic place of worship, but a sanctuary of ice seems equally appropriate for Presbyterians, aka "the Frozen Chosen."

Kim Jong-un, Supreme Leader: a Diplomatic Cheat Sheet

These are "facts" cobbled together about the enigmatic new Leader of the North Korea.  The reliability of this information is questionable; as Kim Jong-un puts it, "you should not expect any change from us."
Shamans performing rituals over image of Kim Jong-un

Thursday, December 29, 2011

9831 Miles South of Svalbard: Puerto Williams, Chile

Puerto Williams, Chile

Puerto Williams claims the title of Southern most town in the world.  As Arctic adventurers travel to Longyearbyen, Antarctic tourists visit Puerto Williams before setting off to Cape Horn and the Antarctic.  Puerto Williams is also a popular way-point for sailors.  The annual Glorias Navales Regata attracts 300 participants from all over the world.

The town of PW is located on the South bank of the Beagle Channel.  The Beagle Channel, named for the HMS Beagle, was established as the border between Argentina and Chile after the Boundary Treaty of 1881.

As with many an international border, tensions remained between the two nations even in this remote location.  Why?  The waters off Cape Horn ("The Sea of Fear") have claimed the lives of many a sailor.  Charles Darwin wrote in The Voyage of the Beagle that "One sight of such a coast is enough to make a landsman dream for a week about shipwrecks, peril, and death; and with this sight we bade farewell for ever to Tierra del Fuego."  Until the Panama Canal, all ship traffic from the Atlantic to the Pacific sides of South America had to pass through the fjords and channels of Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia. The country in control of these routes received the passage fees.

The "Beagle Conflict" began in 1904 when Argentina claimed control of some islands traditionally under Chilean control.  Litigation arose as to the interpretation of 1881 treaty, in particular the Islands Clause aka Article III.  The Islands Clause established the Beagle Channel as the border, but added the clause that "to Chile shall belong all the islands to the south of Beagle Channel up to Cape Horn, and those there may be to the west of Tierra del Fuego."  Argentina received the islands "of the eastern coast of Patagonia."  Well, this seems straight forward, until you look at a map which shows that Tierra del Fuego is east of Patagonia and Patagonia is west of Tierra del Fuego. Thus litigation arose as to the meaning of "Patagonia" and "Tierra del Fuego." 

The Beagle Conflict simmered and stewed through three quarters of the 20th century until January 25, 1978 when Argentina sent a naval squadron to the Beagle Channel in an effort to claim full control of the channel.  Chile responded in kind and the two nations prepared for war.  Pope John Paul II intervened, sending letter to both presidents.  The Vatican conducted a series of meditations which staved off military conflict, but tensions remained high.  On May 2, 1985, the Nations signed a treaty at the Vatican acknowledging Chile's ownership of the islands and Argentina's right to maritime passage (perhaps control) of some Chilean waters.

Wednesday, December 28, 2011

Commercial Freedom Abounds in Svalbard

Longyearbyen Valley
Thanks to the Spitsbergen Treaty of 1920, citizens of the US, along with all of the signatories, may enjoy free access to the Northern paradise of Svalbard.  Svalbard, home to the Northern most town in the world, was first discovered in the 11th century by the Norse.   The Medieval Icelandic book Landnamabok (The Book of Settlment) makes the first mention of "Cold Shores," Svalbard.  Curiously, the prologue to the Landnamabok begins with a reference to the De Temporum Ratione by Venerable Bede in which an island where the sun does not set in the summer is identified as Tili (Iceland). 

Since the first discovery of Svalbard,  no one has wanted to claim the islands as their own.  The Spitsbergen Treaty gave full ownership of the island to Norway, but allowed any signatory of the treaty the right to become a resident and reap the commercial bounty of the archipelago.  Before moving there, you should become acquainted with Norwegian law which governs criminal, civil and commercial disputes. 

Although over 500 miles from the nearest city, Longyearbyen has modest accommodations for the arctic adventure tourist.  There is a nightclub, a cinema, and a variety of restaurants.  If you decide to explore the surrounding countryside, make sure that you are armed, it is the law.  Whenever leaving the settlement, you must carry a firearm.  Don't worry if you left your Browning at home, the local bakery rents guns. Why must you carry a weapon?  Polar bears.  You will need a gun to protect yourself from polar bears wandering the valley.  But, keep in mind that it is illegal to shoot a polar bear.  Happy Travels!

Monday, December 26, 2011

Shipping Delay: TSA Airport Security Playset

Christmas is a time of miracles, but not all miracles.  Sadly, the TSA Airport Security set did not make it through Customs at LAX in time for Christmas morning.  Apparently, x-rays of x-rays create an intellectual paradox for security protocol.  Does a full body scan of a full body scan put your clothing back on, thus hiding the Norwegian fruit cake you hoped to eat on the plane that no longer provides food? 

When the package arrived today (opened and missing the wand and zip-cuffs), frankly, I was disappointed; if I had only read the reviews on Amazon.  Shoes do not come off, suitcase does not open, only one person waiting in line...

For a birthday present, I have ordered the Interrogation Room with poseable drug-dog.

Friday, December 23, 2011

Robots We Should Fear

Robots of today, although more functional, lack the terrifying intrigue of their mid-century tin counterparts. The Lilliput, a classic wobbling robot, evokes the image of restless authority that the blank faced ASIMO or EVA lack.  Perhaps its pointy teeth imply a self-destructive craving for human flesh and kittens.  Even more fearsome is the Smoking Robot.  As the name implies, this robots "exhales" smoke.  Why?  Perhaps it emits greenhouse gases, plotting to slowly destroy the world through global warming.  Robots don't care about time or solar radiation.
Smoking Robot

Today, you can purchase a desk top robot tank.  Resembling a Smart car, the "Desk Pet" hardly evokes the science fiction horror of yesteryear. Where is the fake laser, sparking maw, and claws?  Lilliput maybe slow, but once it starts gnawing Desk Pet's "supplied dongle," order will be restored to un-nature.

Desk Pet Tankbot

Thursday, December 22, 2011

Wittgenstein and the Law: 7th Circuit wins

House designed by Wittgenstein
After 20 years of reading Wittgenstein, I still don't get him.  I ask, "Why do I keep coming back to this guy?"  Perhaps because he was an aspiring architect; perhaps because he described footnotes as "some stupid details" (the bachelor's thesis he turned in had no footnotes); perhaps because he rejected Bertrand Russell's offer to write the introduction to the Tractatus; perhaps because he hid out in Norway when people irritated him.

Since we were talking about the 7th Circuit, it should be noted that the 7th Circuit holds the record for most references to "Ludwig Wittgenstein."  Judge Easterbrook has made much use of the philosophical work of Wittgenstein.  (see Continental Can Co. v. Chicago Truck Drivers, 916 F.2d 1154 (7th Cir. 1990))  This photo of Chief Judge Easterbrook in front of a print by Joan Miro seems appropriate.  Miro said, "The works must be conceived with fire in the soul but executed with clinical coolness."  Wittgenstein, likewise, was passionate, yet clinical in his analysis.  The purpose of philosophy is to "show the fly the way out of the bottle."

C.Judge Easterbrook & Joan Miro

Wednesday, December 21, 2011

When Philosphy and Literature Collide in Law

The joy of practicing law, as opposed to medicine (an activity I know nothing about, thus I can freely mischaracterize) is that your colleagues are avid readers and closet philosophers.  When the opposing counsel or the judge comes out of the closet, there is the potential for enlightenment... or, if you are in the courtroom, disaster.  A modern jury argument that relies on Henry V quotes to frame the issue of conspiracy or, worse yet, breach of contract, is as doomed as the French at Agincourt.
"Monkey and the Cat"

"Consideration, like an angel, came
And whipped the offending Adam out of him."
Henry V, Shakespeare

When not in the courtroom, literature and philosophy can be the best tools for efficiently framing complex issues.  For example, Judge Richard Cuhad's Westpoint education came through clearly when he wrote, "This case concerns the corrupt, Machiavellian world of permit parking at the University of Illinois's Urbana-Champaign campus." Brewer v. Board of Education, 479 F.3d 908 (7th Cir. 2007).  The late Judge Terence Evans responded in kind, showing off his liberal arts education from Marquette.  In, Staub v. Proctor Hospital, Judge Evans began the opinion by explaining the "cat's paw theory," adopted by Judge Cuhad in Brewer, derives its meaning from a 17th Century poem by Jean de La Fontaine (1621-1695).  The playful wit of Judge Evans deserves its own entry at the Edge.  (see discussion of "Ho" and "Hoe" in Bancard America, Inc. v. Universal Bankcard Sys.,Inc.,203 F.3d 477 (7th Cir. 2000))

But, while we are visiting the 7th Circuit, we cannot overlook Judge Richard Posner. Sticking with the classics, the English major from Yale succinctly explained that if the people of Athens could vote to execute Socrates, then people of Chicago can vote to withdraw the liquor license of Club Misty. (Club Misty, Inc. v. Laski, 208 F.3d 615 (7th Cir. 2000)).  They both had an opportunity to argue their case to those casting votes.

A Miniature City with Big World Problems: fighting crime in 1:87 scale

Knuffingen airport.

The largest miniature airport has been completed in Hamburg, Germany at Minature Wunderland.  With the increased traffic to Gerrit and Frederik Braun's micro-cosmos comes an increase in crime and other sorted activity.

Red light district


Beach monkeys!
Drug bust

Tuesday, December 20, 2011

"Take My Snake" you *$%$@ politicians

Instead of paying the bribes demanded of them, two North Indian farmers deposited three bags of snakes on the floor of the local tax office. As a protest against endemic government corruption, Hukkul Khan and Ramkul Ram (a local snake charmer) collected together more than 40 snakes, including 4 cobras, and then delivered the snakes to the tax office in Basti.  Office workers described the scene as "absolute chaos"... snakes crawling and climbing everywhere.  Snakes are a serious problem in India, even when they have not been angered and dumped in front of helpless functionaries.  The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene estimates that nearly 46,000 people in India die each year from snake bites.

Unnamed Man Ok after bender 123 years ago

The Waco Evening News reported today (December 20), 123 years ago (1888), that the "unfortunate man" who had succumbed to mania a potu is feeling much better.

In other news:
- The Constable waited until after the wedding ceremony to arrest another unnamed man for swindling and child abuse. 
- Lizzie Bennet was tried and convicted of swearing in a public place.  Fine of $5.00.

Monday, December 19, 2011

Mania a Potu: Near death in Waco 1888

On page 4 of the Waco Evening News this day, 123 years ago, a curious note was placed regarding an incident at the saloon.  Unfortunately, inside jokes are lost in time.  Who was the traveler so "well known in Waco" that a name was unnecessary?

"The banks of the dark river were pressed mighty close to-day, by the staggering feet of a commercial traveler, well known in Waco.  He fell from a chair in a saloon about ten oclock this morning, and was taken to the city hall.  His symptoms verging on a fierce form of mania a potu, grew alarming and a physician was called in.  At three this evening he was thought to be out of danger, but if he should recover he will have made a narrow escape from the dark waters of the Styx."

"Mania a potu" - madness from excessive consumption of alcohol.

Lost & Found in Waco: 123 years ago

12/19/1888 - Waco Evening News
The Waco Evening News, in service to the citizens of Waco, Texas, provided a daily list of notices regarding items lost and found.  On this day (December 19), 123 years ago, the News included the following notices:
Sanborn Map, 1885, McLelland Opera House
- Lost - Memorandum book of the Waco Bridge Co.  Lost on Austin Ave.  Please return to Mr. Russell at the bridge.  (The Bridge Co. was the entity that collected tolls for crossing the famous Waco Suspension Bridge.)
- Found - A copy of "Daniel's Chancery Pleading and Practice" on south 5th Street.  (hmm, heavy book to drop.  I guess he running late to a hearing at the courthouse.  In 1888, McLennan County was on its third courthouse, which was located at the corner of Franklin Ave. and 2nd Street.)
- Lost - A pair of gold spectacles.
- Found - A boy's overcoat, at the old McClelland opera house.

- Lost - One blow Pigeon.  $1 reward.  (I have no idea what a "blow pigeon" is.)
Sanborn Map, 1885, McLennan Courthouse

Lady Blunt Exposed?: her cheaper brother, Betts, submited to the indignity of cloning

Betts"y" violin.  You can see the original Stradivari label.

The famed Lady Blunt, which sold at auction for the record price of $15 million in June, has caught the attention of the marketers who wish to recreate a Stradivarius for a less affluent market.  (see Increase 100 Fold and Lady for Sale). Dr. Steven Sirr, a radiologist with a passion for violins, has scanned Betts, a less famous older brother of Lady Blunt.  The Betts was made by the Stradivarius workshop in 1704. Unlike his sister, the Betts is famous for being the cheapest Stradivarius in history.  In 1820, the violin was sold to the Betts shop in London for 1 guinea, thus acquiring its name. 

Dr. Sirr has used his radiological equipment to scan the Betts, hoping to divine its magical musical qualities.  From the thousands of images, the Waddle Violin Company has recreated the famous instrument with computer guided cutting equipment.  Dr. Sirr says that his next project is to scan a Stradivarius cello.
Metallic Aura scan of Betts.

Friday, December 16, 2011

122nd Anniversary of Hume v. United States (132 US 406): origin of phrase "Aw Shucks"

 Government Hospital for the Insane, founded 1852
In 1883, the Government Hospital for the Insane (National Insane Asylum) in Washington (later to be known as St. Elizabeth's) had a desperate need for 8,000 pounds of shucks.  Frank Hume, a supplier of goods, responded to the U.S. government's call for bids.  Mr. Hume bid 60 cents per pound for shucks, which the Secretary of the Interior accepted.  It is important to note that at that time, unhackled shucks were worth $12/ton and hackled shucks went for $35/ton.  Per pound that is .6 cents and 1.75 cents.  The Court of Claims found the contract to be a grossly unfair and thus an unconscionable contract.  Oh Frank Hume, you were such an "equity rouge."  But how could the Secretary of the Interior be such a "common-law fool" as to math?  The Court of Claims suggested that the bid sheet was misprinted and instead of "pounds," it should have read "100 pounds."  Anyway, the Court of Claims disregarded the contract, following the precedent set in the famous "equity rouge" case of James v. Morgan, 1 Lev. 111 (1663). Morgan, like the U.S. Secretary of Interior, agreed to buy a horse for a barley of corn for each nail in the horse's shoe, doubling the price for each nail.  This convoluted calculation (similar to car lease agreements) resulted in a price 12.5 times the market value of the horse.  Thus was born the common law principle that gross mathematical ignorance is a defense to contracts. As applied by the Court of Claims, Mr. Hume was only entitled to the market value of his shucks (thus the phrase "Aw Shucks" was born): $117.60 ($35/ton).

Both the United States and Frank Hume filed a petition for review to the U.S. Supreme Court.  Hume v. United States, 132 U.S. 406 (1889).  In a tradition of government contract shenanigans, Mr. Hume argued that he fully intended to bid .60 cents per pound, an amount 35 times the market value of the shucks actually delivered.  "One day," Mr. Hume argued, "the U.S. government will pay $436 for a hammer and $640 for a toilet seat, whatever that is.  My attempt to defraud the government should be judged in light of future fiscal failings by Washington."  In response, Asst. A.G. Maury stated that, "The time is now that you [Legislators of the Bench] create an escape door for the mathematically-challenged of the world to unshackle themselves from contracts that they did not understand in the first place.  Our complete and utter ignorance should void the contract and protect us from having to pay anything for these shucks.  Furthermore, Mr. Hume should be punished for allowing the us to enter into this contract without comprehending how much the contract will cost."

The Supreme Court, with the wisdom of Solomon, returned to nail-counting case of James v. Morgan and affirmed the general rule that an unconscionable contract is void and an "equity rouge" shall receive no more than market value for his shucks.

Soviet Arcade Games: High Score = Capitalist Pig

Morskoi Boi

The one thing you need to know about Soviet arcade games from the 1980s is that high scores were not permitted.  You could win enough point to earn a free game, but once the final tune played, your digital achievement faded in to a collective oblivion.  You can relive the glory days of Soviet games at the Museum of Soviet Arcade Games.  Some games, such as Morskoi Boi (Sea Battle) can now be played online, saving you the 15 Kopek coin rattling around in your desk drawer.

15 Kopek

Thursday, December 15, 2011

Anti-Artist's newest anti-art piece: Banksy Sins Again

Cardinal Sin - Banksy 2011.  Squint and see the face...
Banksy's latest controversy is entitled "Cardinal Sin."  The artist obliterated the face of some forgotten nobleman and replaced it with bathroom tiles.  There is an honored tradition of destroying art to create art.  The pinnacle of the arti-art "school" is Rauschenberg's "Erased de Kooning."  In 1953, the Port Arthur, Texas native visited his mentor's studio to ask for one of his drawings.  De Kooning recognized the symbolism of Rauschenberg's request and said to the younger artist, "I want to give you one that I'll miss... I want it to be very hard to erase."  (see Mark Stevens and Annalyn Swan's "de Kooning: an American master.")  Rauschenberg accepted the offering and proceeded to meticulously erase de Kooning's drawing.

Erased de Kooning Drawing - Rauschenberg 1953
LHOOQ - Duchamp 1919
A significant difference between Banksy's "Cardinal Sin" and such works as "Erased de Kooning" and Duchamp's "LHOOQ" is the target of the artist's attack.  Rauchenberg and Duchamp (see old post regarding Pinoncelli's "comment" on the "Fountain" by Duchamp) attacked the "institution" of art; they called into question the meaning of art.  Banksy, as a third generation anti-artist, is working from within an institution of "anti-art" and has used his creation to attack a subject external to the art world.  Cardinal Sin was designed as "a response to the child abuse scandal in the Catholic church."

Wednesday, December 14, 2011

Christmas Photos and Strange Marketing: Mayor "Xerxes" Santini

Christmas Card

In what is a bold holiday statement, Hon. Jorge Santini, mayor of San Juan, included in his family photo an leopard killing a gazelle.  The Huffington Post accurately comments that this hunt scene is a little "creepy." The motives of Mayor Santini still elude the press and his constituents.  The Mayor says that the scene is not about destroying his political enemies, but promotes the local wildlife museum he founded in 2008.  The museum does have a diorama with a leopard carrying away a more manageable sized prey.  Despite the mayor's assurances that this card is not a political statement, the image of a lion killing its prey reaches back in history to Achaemenid empire and the city of Persepolis.  The imagery of the lion attacking the bull was engraved on the walls of the city and its coinage.  The full meaning of the conflict remains the subject of speculation, but the fight between the predator and the prey symbolize a cosmic struggle of power and submission.  Mayor Santini, are you the lion or the bull?
Lion & Bull from Persepolis
San Juan Wildlife Museum

Tuesday, December 13, 2011

Pixilated Cloud or Terror Attack: Art imitates life

The Cloud, rendition.
Rotterdam based architectural firm MVRDV has come under attack for the design of a building to be constructed in Seoul, Korea.  The Cloud, a two tower structure connected at the 27th floor by a "pixilated cloud," evokes the destruction of the World Trade Center.  To be honest, if the building can be constructed as designed, it would be fantastic.  The only draw back is the allusion to death and destruction. 

MVRDV denies any intentional connection between the design of the Cloud and the attack on the twin towers.  "It was not our intention to create an image resembling the attacks nor did we see the resemblance during the design process. We sincerely apologize to anyone whose feelings we have hurt, it was not our intention." 

The Cloud, concept drawing.
Setting aside the potential for a grim trend in architecture, could a building designed as an homage to the destruction of iconic architecture be beautiful and inspirational in a non-offensive way?  Instead of seeing the Cloud as a monument to the destruction of life and art, embrace the design as a provocative comment on the ability of architecture to transform the gruesome into the beautiful.  If the building is to be built as a memorial, it should be in New York.

Friday, December 9, 2011

Pendle Witch House Protected by Dead Cat

From Barking Moon Bat
Beneath Pendle Hill in Lancashire, England, archaeologists have unearthed a 17th century cottage that has been enthusiastically described as a Pendle Witch home.  What is the determinative evidence?  The dead cat buried in the wall of a secret room.  Undoubtedly, the cat was once alive and thus it is as likely as not that the cat had been buried alive in the wall in order to protect against evil (or good) spirits.  Many contemporary books on cats reference pagan European traditions of burying a cat alive in a field or foundation in order to ward off evil spirits. This might suggest that the cottage recently uncovered was merely a neighbor to a Pendle Witch or her client. 

Pendle Witch Trial transcript by Thomas Potts, 1612.
The Pendle Witch Trial (1612) is to England what the Salem Witch Trial is to the United States.  Some have suggested that there is jurisprudential link between the two trials.  The Pendle Witch trial established as precedent the permissibility of children giving testimony in matters concerning "high treason against God."  The English legal system has always been reluctant to allow children to testify in court because of a child's inability to meet competency standards for adults, in particular, being able to understand the oath.  King James I published his book Demonology as a call to arms in the fight against the growing problem of "slaves of the Devil, Witches, or Enchanters."  As part of the fight against the Devil, the James I explained that women, children, and even liars are competent to testify on matters concerning treason against God.  Thus, nine year old Jennet Device was called to testify that her mother was a witch.  The admission of Jennet's testimony set the precedent for the admission of the children's testimony in the Salem Witch Trials in 1692.

Thursday, December 8, 2011

Stong Winds Blow Forever Marilyn's Skirt

In July of 2011, Chicago unveiled Seward Johnson's 26 foot tall Marilyn Monroe statue.  "Forever Marilyn," made of aluminum and stainless steel, recreates the famous scene in Seven Year Itch where Monroe coyly holds down her skirt against the disrobing forces of a street vent.  Critics of Seven Year Itch complained that the clip revealed too much bare leg.  Although the movie is a "dusty" classic, that one image of Monroe ranks with "Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima" as an icon of American culture. The allure, if not the power, of the image emanates from the act of concealment.  This tension between revelation and concealment is the essence of the aesthetic experience. As Heidegger discussed in The Origin of the Work of Art, the disrobing of an object reveals its Truth.  But, art is not concerned with Truth in the same way science studies the objects of the world.  The concealment of an object hides the Truth and opens a dialog with the audience as to the possibilies of meaning that may emerge from what is not seen.  Heidegger used "Old Woman's Shoes" by Vincent Van Gogh, As an example of the tension between revelation and concealment.  What is revealed in the painting is a pair of old and worn shoes.  Yet, much remains concealed. In other words, the depiction of the shoes raises many questions about what is not depicted: Who is the owner? What are they used for?  What are they made of?  Are they a a source of comfort in life of the owner? Are the shoes a source of pain and sorrow?
Van Gogh (1885)

The Heidegger flashback is necessary to raise my own critique of Forever Marilyn.  Transforming the still shot of Norma Jean into a three dimensional and larger than life statue undermined the power of the image; the statue reveals what had been concealed.  In the image, Monroe holds down her skirt.  Now, while shopping the Magnificent Mile, you can walk right under her skirt.